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Kamakura city / The Short Summary Of Kamakura-shi

Kamakura City is the mot famous and popular city for sightseeing in Kanto Region, there are hundreds of landmarks, National Treasures and Important Cultural Properties in the city. Kamakura is on the south eastern part of Kanagawa Prefecture. The city is nearby Tokyo by trains, so it is not only a tourist city but also a bed town of Tokyo. The population of the city is about over 170 thousand. Kamakura has very unique landscapes, it is surrounded by moutains in three directions of the north, east and west, and the sea laid on the south of it, so it has very wonderful views in nature, therefore many writers has loved to live Kamakura and it is appears on their stories. So Kamakura is one of the most beautiful city Japan.

First people settled at Kamakura over 10 thousand years ago, so remains made in old stone ages were fouond Mt. Awahune behind of Joraku-ji Temple. Some remains of Jomon Ages and Yayoi Ages were also found at Kamakura.

Even if people settled in 10,000 years ago, Kamakura first appeared on the written history in 1063, Yoriyoshi Minamoto build Iwashimizu-Hachimangu Shrine in Kamakura, so the shrine was the god of samurai worriers, the Minamoto Clan worshipped it in Kyoto for a long time. It is the famous shrine, Tsurugaoka Hachimangu Shrine. In 1081, his son Yoshiie Minamoto repaired the shrine. In 1145, Yoshitomo MInamoto lived near Jufuku-ji Temple in Kamakura. These stories tells that the Minamoto Clan deeply related to Kamakura.

In 1192, Yoritomo was appointed as the Shogun and founded the Kamakura Bakufu (the Kamakura Shogunate) in Kamakura. Yoritomo fixed the administrative organizetion and planned development of Kamakura. In 1230, Kamakura was at its zenith and the center of the samurai society in Japan, and the population of Kamakura was over 30 million, so it almost the capital city of Japan in real. Kamakura Bakufu was the first sumurai government to control throughout Japan. Yoritomo Minamoto and his son and his grandchildren, the Minamoto Clan was ruined in three generations, then the Hojo Clan, the family of Masako Hojo, the wife of Yoritomo, seized power to rule the Bakufu. While the development of Kamakura's economy, many products, culture, thoughts, and technologies were carried there from China, and of course Zen Sect of Buddhism came in Kamakura, then the Great Buddha at Hase, Kencho-ji Temple, Enkaku-ji Temple and other temples belonging to Zen Sect were built in. The Kamakura Bakufu ended in 1333.

When Muromachi Period started, the Muromachi Bakufu established Kamakura-fu (a regional office of the Muromachi Bakufu)to rule the eight provinces in Kanto Region. The director of the office was Kamakura Kubo (the Kamakura shogun), but Kanto Kanrei (the chief counselors of the Kamakura shogun) seized the power to control the region in real. This relation between them caused some conflicts in the Kanto Region. The Battle of Kyotoku happened in 1454, so the Kamakura Kubo Shigeuji Ashikaga assassinated Kanto Kanrei Noritada Uesugi. It was the beginning of the Sengoku Period in Kanto Region. In 1455, Kamakura Shogun Nariuji Ashikaga tried to fight against the Muromach Shogun, but Nariuji lost and escaped to Koga in Shimousa. After left Kamakura, the city lost its flourishness, it became the agricultural and fishermans community. In 1495, Soun Hojo (the founder of Go-Hojo Clan) seized the Odawara Castle in western Kanagawa Prefecture. After Soun moved to Odawara, he developed his influence through the area of Kanagawa Prefecture actively and aggressively, and his clan had ruled it almost 100 years. In 1590, Hideyoshi Toyotomi who was the was the Kanpaku Dajo-daijin (the supreme minister and chancellor) won the Siege of Odawara, the Hojo Clan ruined, and Ieyasu Tokugawa moved to Kanto, and he ruled the region at Edo Castle.

In Edo Period, the temples and shrines restored, and vistors of them gradually increased. In the seventeenth century, Mitsukuni Tokugawa edited Shinpen Kamakurashi (the new editions of Kamakura's history), visitors from Edo had read it and came Kamakura to see Enoshima Island and some historical heritages in the temples and shirines in Kamakura. So the tourist city Kamakura was born in Edo Period.

In 1889, JR Yokosuka Line constructed, many fashionable people came to base at seashore in Kamakura, so Kamakura became the resort city. People loved its warm climate, nature, historical and cultural traditions there. In Showa Era, many writers and poets moved to Kamakura, they are called 'Kamakura Bunshi' ( the writers of Kamakura).

Now, many visitors came to enjoy Kamakura. Kamakura is very best tourist city in Japan.


参考
鎌倉市ホームページ
鎌倉観光協会ホームページ
神奈川県ホームページ
デジタル大辞林
ブリタニカ国際大百科事典
クロニック戦国全史
ウィッキペディア

The Map Of Kamakura City